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Solar energy process

  • Solar Photovoltaic module is used in the process of converting solar radiation (sunlight) into electricity using a device called solar cell. A solar cell is a semi-conducting device made of silicon or other materials, which, when exposed to sunlight, generates electricity.
  • The magnitude of the electric current generated depends on the intensity of the solar radiation, exposed area of the solar cell, the type of material used in fabricating the solar cell, and ambient temperature. Solar cells are connected in series and parallel combinations to form panels that provide the required power.
  • The conversion of sunlight to usable electrical energy has been dubbed the Photovoltaic Effect. The amount of solar radiation that strikes a single location over a given period of time (usually one day) is called isolation.

Solar Panel

  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells utilize semiconductor technology to convert solar radiation directly into an electric current which can be used immediately or stored for future use.
  • PV cells are often grouped in the form of Solar Panels to produce arrays which have the capability to produce power for orbiting satellites and other spacecraft.
  • Solar panels are typically constructed with cystalline silicon, which is used in other industries (such as the microprocessor industry), and the more expensive gallium arsenide, which is produced exclusively for use in photovoltaic (solar) cells.
  • Solar Panels are a form of active solar power, a term that describes how solar panels make use of the sun's energy: solar panels harvest sunlight and actively convert it to electricity. Solar Cells, or photovoltaic cells, are arranged in a grid-like pattern on the surface of the solar panel. These solar voltaic cells collect sunlight during the daylight hours and covert it into electricity.
  • Other, more efficient solar panels are assembled by depositing amorphous silicon alloy in a continuous roll-to-roll process. The solar cells created from this process are called Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, or A-si. Solar Panels constructed using amorphous silicon technology are more durable, efficient, and thinner than their crystalline counterparts.

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cell

  • Photovoltaic solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cell applications are solar calculators and other small devices; telecommunications; rooftop panels on individual houses; and for lighting, pumping, and medical refrigeration for villages in developing countries. Solar cells in the form of large arrays are used to power satellites and, in rare cases, to provide electricity for power plants.
  • Photovoltaic (PV) devices generate electricity directly from sunlight via an electronic process that occurs naturally in certain types of material, called semiconductors. Electrons in these materials are freed by solar energy and can be induced to travel through an electrical circuit, powering electrical devices or sending electricity to the grid.
  • Photons strike and ionize semiconductor material on the solar panel, causing outer electrons to break free of their atomic bonds. Due to the semiconductor structure, the electrons are forced in one direction creating a flow of electrical current. •Solar cells are not 100% efficient in Diagram of a typical crystalline silicon solar cell. Solar cells are not 100% efficient in part because some of the light spectrum is reflected, some is too weak to create electricity (infrared) and some (ultraviolet) creates heat energy instead of electricity.

Factors determining the Solar PV Cell output -

  • The no. of solar cells: higher the number greater the output
  • The quality of solar cells: better quality higher output
  • The isolation in the solar cells: higher isolation higher output
  • The cost of solar panels has greatly reduced in recent years.
  • A small solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) system can be a reliable and pollution-free producer of electricity for your home or office.
  • Silicon remains the most popular material for solar cells
  • For home solar electric systems, the most common array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels.
  • Solar arrays are designed to provide specified amounts of electricity under certain conditions.

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